Sepoy Letters (India)

Indian soldiers were sent to Europe in 1914, and some of them were to serve there until 1918. Throughout their stay in Europe, Indian soldiers wrote and received letters. Translated excerpts from their correspondence – mainly to and from their families – have copiously survived in transcripts preserved in British censors’ reports. These letters offer evidence for the morale and concerns of India’s warrior-peasantry, and reveal much about their reactions to wartime life in Britain and France. The letters demonstrate that their encounter with Europe encouraged them to reflect, sometimes critically, on life in India.

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Soldiers of Empire Dissertation

A dissertation presented
by
Andrew Tait Jarboe

In late 1914, the British Empire deployed Indian soldiers (called sepoys) to
Europe in a desperate bid to halt the advancing German army and thereby save the
Empire. Although a variety of studies have explored the subject of Indian soldiers in
Europe, few venture beyond their military contributions to the situation on the Western
Front. In contrast, I devote considerable attention to the more ―intimate frontiers‖ of the
British and German Empires, especially British hospitals for wounded sepoys and
German prison camps where captured sepoys were detained. Comparison of the policy
and practice of British and German military authorities, vis-à-vis Indian soldiers, is
therefore one contribution of this work. I argue that tactical, military considerations and
imperial concerns – namely, protecting racial hierarchies and the loyalty of Indian troops
– shaped the experiences of sepoys in Europe.

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Britain Didn’t Fight The Second World War

The British Empire Did

In 1929, when Edwin Lutyens handed over the newly completed building site of New Delhi to the Viceroy, Lord Irwin, many believed he had created a capital for a British empire in India that would last if not 1,000, then at least 100 years. It was, as Lord Stamfordham wrote, ‘a symbol of the might and permanence of the British empire’ that had been commissioned specifically so that ‘the Indian will see for the first time the power of western civilisation’.

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Why The Indian Soldiers of WW1 Were Forgotten

Approximately 1.3 million Indian soldiers served in World War One, and over 74,000 of them lost their lives. But history has mostly forgotten these sacrifices, which were rewarded with broken promises of Indian independence from the British government, writes Shashi Tharoor.

Exactly 100 years after the “guns of August” boomed across the European continent, the world has been extensively commemorating that seminal event. The Great War, as it was called then, was described at the time as “the war to end all wars”. Ironically, the eruption of an even more destructive conflict 20 years after the end of this one meant that it is now known as the First World War. Those who fought and died in the First World War would have had little idea that there would so soon be a Second.

Click here to Read Shashi Tharoor’s article.

The Army History Forgot

When Germany surrendered on 8 May 1945, Philip Malins, an officer in the Indian army, was still fighting the Japanese. “We were still getting killed and prisoners of war were still dying,” he told me in a voice choking with anger. “So when people, including the Government, want more or less to suggest the war was finished before 15 August, we will not have that. We will not have that.”

When Germany surrendered on 8 May 1945, Philip Malins, an officer in the Indian army, was still fighting the Japanese. “We were still getting killed and prisoners of war were still dying,” he told me in a voice choking with anger. “So when people, including the Government, want more or less to suggest the war was finished before 15 August, we will not have that. We will not have that.”

But then Field Marshal Viscount Slim’s 14th Army, which turned the tide against the Japanese army in Burma, called themselves the Forgotten Army, so perhaps it’s not surprising that most of us appear to have forgotten them and the war in the East they fought.

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Released |Duration : 1 hours 34 minutes

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DIRECTED BY : Jon Favreau.

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LANGUAGE : English.

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PRODUCTION BY : Walt Disney Pictures, Fairview Entertainment.

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Movie ‘The Lion King’ was released in July 17, 2019 in genre Drama. Jon Favreau was directed this movie and starring by Donald Glover. This movie tell story about Simba idolises his father, King Mufasa, and takes to heart his own royal destiny. But not everyone in the kingdom celebrates the new cub’s arrival. Scar, Mufasa’s brother—and former heir to the throne—has plans of his own. The battle for Pride Rock is ravaged with betrayal, tragedy and drama, ultimately resulting in Simba’s exile. With help from a curious pair of newfound friends, Simba will have to figure out how to grow up and take back what is rightfully his.

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Released |Duration : 1 hours 32 minutes

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LANGUAGE : English.

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COUNTRY : United States of America.

PRODUCTION BY : Lionsgate, Summit Entertainment, Thunder Road Pictures, 87Eleven Productions.

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Movie ‘John Wick: Chapter 3 – Parabellum’ was released in May 16, 2019 in genre Drama. Chad Stahelski was directed this movie and starring by Keanu Reeves. This movie tell story about John Wick is on the run for two reasons… he’s being hunted for a global $14 million dollar open contract on his life, and for breaking a central rule: taking a life on Continental Hotel grounds. The victim was a member of the High Table who ordered the open contract. John should have already been executed, except the Continental’s manager, Winston, has given him a one-hour grace period before he’s “Excommunicado” – membership revoked, banned from all services and cut off from other members. John uses the service industry to stay alive as he fights and kills his way out of New York City.

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Released |Duration : 1 hours 14 minutes

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VIDEO : 720p.

LANGUAGE : English.

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PLOT SUMMARY

‘The Curse of La Llorona’ is a movie genre Drama, was released in April 17, 2019. Michael Chaves was directed this movie and starring by Linda Cardellini. This movie tell story about A social worker dealing with the disappearance of two children fears for her own family after beginning the investigation.

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Released |Duration : 1 hours 14 minutes

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DIRECTED BY : Neil Marshall.

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VIDEO : 720p.

LANGUAGE : English.

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COUNTRY : United States of America.

PRODUCTION BY : Campbell Grobman Films, Lionsgate, Dark Horse Entertainment, Millennium Films.

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‘Hellboy’ is a movie genre Drama, was released in April 11, 2019. Neil Marshall was directed this movie and starring by David Harbour. This movie tell story about Hellboy comes to England, where he must defeat Nimue, Merlin’s consort and the Blood Queen. But their battle will bring about the end of the world, a fate he desperately tries to turn away.

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Released |Duration : 1 hours 30 minutes

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DIRECTED BY : David F. Sandberg.

PRODUCED BY : Michael E. Uslan, Michael Ewing.

GENRE : Drama, Action, Comedy, Adventure, Fantasy.

VIDEO : 720p.

LANGUAGE : English.

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COUNTRY : United States of America.

PRODUCTION BY : Silver Fox Entertainment, DC Entertainment, Callahan Filmworks, DC Comics, New Line Cinema, Warner Bros. Pictures, The Safran Company, Mad Ghost Productions.

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Movie ‘Shazam!’ was released in April 3, 2019 in genre Drama. David F. Sandberg was directed this movie and starring by Zachary Levi. This movie tell story about A boy is given the ability to become an adult superhero in times of need with a single magic word.

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